Court Procedure and Evidence Issues Neal R. Bevans

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Check Financial institution For Court Procedure and Evidence Issues Neal R. Bevans

  • ISBN-10 ‏ : ‎ 0735507651
  • ISBN-13 ‏ : ‎ 978-0735507654
Readable and sensible textual content for legal justice programs on court docket process and judicial course of, incorporating an summary of evidentiary points.

Desk of Contents
Entrance Matter
About Wolters Kluwer Legislation & Enterprise
Dedication
Preface
FEATURES OF THE TEXTBOOK:
TEXTBOOK RESOURCES
Acknowledgments
1 An Introduction to the Court System
Chapter Goals
I INTRODUCTION TO THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM
A. THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN CIVIL AND CRIMINAL CASES
1. OUTCOME OF THE CASE
FIGURE 1-1 Civil Versus Prison Case Varieties
EXAMPLE
Sidebar
a. The Verdicts
i. Responsible
ii. Not Responsible
FIGURE 1-2 Modification V, U.S. Structure
iii. Responsible however Mentally In poor health
iv. Not Responsible by Purpose of Madness (NGRI)
EXAMPLE
b. Verdicts in Civil Circumstances
2. BURDEN OF PROOF IS DIFFERENT
Sidebar
EXAMPLE
3. PARTIES WHO INITIATE AND MAINTAIN THE CIVIL ACTION
FIGURE 1-3 Types of Civil Versus Prison Circumstances
4. THE PLEADINGS
B. STATUTORY LAW, CASE LAW, AND COMMON LAW
1. THE U.S. CONSTITUTION
a. State Constitutions
FIGURE 1-4 Article VI, U.S. Structure
2. STATUTORY LAW
a. Company Guidelines, Laws, and Ordinances
FIGURE 1-5 Modification XVI, U.S. Structure
3. CASE LAW
a. Case Legislation and the U.S. Supreme Court
4. COMMON LAW
a. Widespread Legislation Marriage
FIGURE 1-6 Examples of Widespread Legislation
b. Yr and a Day Rule
c. Possession Is 9-Tenths of the Legislation
d. Widespread Legislation At this time
i. Statutory Crimes and Widespread Legislation Crimes
ii. Widespread Legislation in Day-to-day Observe
II FEDERAL PROSECUTIONS VERSUS STATE PROSECUTIONS
PROFILING THE PROFESSIONAL
A. FEDERAL JURISDICTION
B. STATE JURISDICTION
FIGURE 1-7 Federal Courts Dealt with 20% of the Nation’s Felony Weapon Convictions in 2004
1. STATE PROSECUTIONS VERSUS FEDERAL PROSECUTIONS
FIGURE 1-8 Felony Defendants Convicted in State and Federal Courts, 2004, 2000, and 1996
III FEDERAL VERSUS STATE COURT SYSTEMS
A. THE LEVELS OF THE FEDERAL COURT SYSTEM
FIGURE 1-9 Disposition and Case Continuing Time of Defendants in Circumstances Concluded in U.S. District Court, 2005
1. TRIAL COURTS: FEDERAL DISTRICT COURT
Sidebar
2. APPELLATE COURTS: COURT OF APPEALS
FIGURE 1-10 Federal Circuits of america
FIGURE 1-11 States Inside Every Federal Circuit
Sidebar
FIGURE 1-12 The Present Members of the Supreme Court
3. U.S. SUPREME COURT
FIGURE 1-13 Article III, §1, U.S. Structure
B. THE LEVELS OF THE STATE COURT SYSTEM
1. TRIAL COURTS
2. APPELLATE COURTS
3. STATE SUPREME COURT
CASE EXCERPT
CASE QUESTION
CHAPTER SUMMARY
KEY TERMS
REVIEW QUESTIONS
WEB SURFING
EXERCISES
QUESTIONS FOR ANALYSIS
2 The Individuals
Chapter Goals
I JUDGES
A. QUALIFICATIONS
EXAMPLE
B. ELECTED VERSUS APPOINTED
C. ROLE IN THE PROCEEDINGS
1. MAGISTRATES
PROFILING THE PROFESSIONAL
2. JUSTICE OF THE PEACE
D. JUDICIAL ETHICS
FIGURE 2-1 Judicial Positions
1. CIVIL IMMUNITY FOR JUDGES
EXAMPLE
2. RESTRICTIONS ON JUDGES
EXAMPLE
II PROSECUTOR
A. BECOMING A PROSECUTOR
1. CIVIL IMMUNITY FOR PROSECUTORS
2. WHO CAN BECOME A PROSECUTOR?
B. ROLE IN THE PROCEEDINGS
1. JURISDICTIONAL LIMITS ON PROSECUTORS
C. PROSECUTORIAL ETHICS
D. STATE AND FEDERAL PROSECUTORS
1. U.S. ATTORNEY GENERAL
Sidebar
FIGURE 2-2 Order of Succession After a Presidential Loss of life
2. U.S. ATTORNEYS
Sidebar
Sidebar
3. STATE ATTORNEYS GENERAL
Sidebar
FIGURE 2-3 The Duties of the U.S. Legal professional
4. DISTRICT ATTORNEY
FIGURE 2-4 Proportion of Issues Declined by U.S. Attorneys
5. COORDINATION BETWEEN STATE AND FEDERAL AUTHORITIES
III DEFENSE ATTORNEY
FIGURE 2-5 Profiling Legal professionals
A. ATTORNEY-CLIENT PRIVILEGE
FIGURE 2-6 Median Annual Wages of Legal professionals, 2008
Sidebar
EXAMPLE
IV DEFENDANT
A. JUVENILE OFFENDERS
V VICTIM
A. VICTIM IMPACT STATEMENTS
1. MONETARY COMPENSATION AND RESTITUTION FOR VICTIMS
a. Sufferer-Witness Coordinators
VI LAW ENFORCEMENT
A. USE OF FORCE
1. USE OF POLICE DOGS
2. POLICE BRUTALITY AND CORRUPTION
3. LIABILITY OF POLICE OFFICERS
B. UNDERCOVER POLICE OFFICERS
VII PROBATION OFFICERS
VIII JURIES
CASE EXCERPT
CASE QUESTIONS
CHAPTER SUMMARY
KEY TERMS
REVIEW QUESTIONS
WEB SURFING
EXERCISES
QUESTIONS FOR ANALYSIS
3 Evidence
Chapter Goals
I INTRODUCTION
FIGURE 3-1 Defining Related Evidence Beneath the Federal Guidelines
FIGURE 3-2 Judicial Discover
A. ADMISSIBILITY AND RELEVANCY
EXAMPLE
B. CLASSIFYING EVIDENCE: DIRECT AND CIRCUMSTANTIAL
EXAMPLE
1. CLASSIFICATIONS OF DIRECT EVIDENCE
a. Bodily Evidence
b. Documentary Evidence
c. Testimonial Evidence
d. Demonstrative Evidence
PROFILING THE PROFESSIONAL
e. Evidence Used to Determine the Defendant
i. The Significance of an Eyewitness Identification
ii. Simply How Correct Is Eyewitness Testimony?
iii. Constitutional Limits on Lineups
iv. Proper to Counsel at a Lineup
v. Individuals in a Lineup
vi. Photographic Lineups
PROFILING THE PROFESSIONAL
vii. Single-Suspect Lineups
viii. One-Individual Present-Ups
ix. Sanctions for an Improper Lineup
x. Self-Incrimination and Identification
EXAMPLE
C. OTHER EVIDENTIARY ISSUES
1. DNA TESTING
a. DNA As an Evidentiary Software
PROFILING THE PROFESSIONAL
b. DNA Databases
CASE EXCERPT
CASE QUESTIONS
Sidebar
2. FINGERPRINTING
PROFILING THE PROFESSIONAL
Sidebar
3. BLOOD TESTING
4. POLYGRAPH TESTING
5. VOICE TESTING
D. USE OF EVIDENCE IN COURT PROCEEDINGS
1. FOUNDATION QUESTIONS
2. CHAIN OF CUSTODY REQUIREMENTS
3. EVIDENCE ROOMS
PROFILING THE PROFESSIONAL
E. THE EXCLUSIONARY RULE
Sidebar
1. “FRUIT OF THE POISONOUS TREE”
a. Exceptions to the Exclusionary Rule
i. Inevitable Discovery
ii. Good Religion
iii. Unbiased Supply
F. HOW THE JUDGE AND JURY USE PHYSICAL EVIDENCE
CHAPTER SUMMARY
KEY TERMS
REVIEW QUESTIONS
WEB SURFING
EXERCISES
QUESTIONS FOR ANALYSIS
4 Court Procedure and Evidence
Chapter Goals
I PROBABLE CAUSE AND THE FOURTH AMENDMENT
EXAMPLE
A. PROBABLE CAUSE
1. THE PREFERENCE FOR WARRANTS
a. Exceptions to the Warrant Requirement
i. Contraband
ii. Consent
iii. Deserted Property
iv. Pat-Down
v. Exigent Circumstances
2. BASING PROBABLE CAUSE ON INFORMATION PROVIDED BY ANOTHER POLICE OFFICER
3. BASING PROBABLE CAUSE ON INFORMATION PROVIDED BY A CONFIDENTIAL INFORMANT
4. BASING PROBABLE CAUSE ON INFORMATION PROVIDED BY A CITIZEN OR WITNESS
5. BASING PROBABLE CAUSE ON ANONYMOUS TIPS
6. BASING PROBABLE CAUSE ON SPECIALIZED TRAINING
EXAMPLE
EXAMPLE
B. STANDARDS FOR THE ISSUANCE OF AN ARREST WARRANT
1. ARREST WARRANTS
PROFILING THE PROFESSIONAL
2. ARRESTS OUTSIDE THE OFFICER’S JURISDICTION
3. CITIZEN’S ARREST
4. ARRESTING WITHOUT A WARRANT FOR MISDEMEANORS
FIGURE 4-1 Suspects Arrested and Booked by U.S. Marshals
a. What Constitutes the Officer’s “Presence”?
EXAMPLE
C. STANDARDS FOR ISSUANCE OF A SEARCH WARRANT
EXAMPLE
D. WHO CAN CHALLENGE A SEARCH?
EXAMPLE
EXAMPLE
EXAMPLE
II INTERROGATION AND MIRANDA
A. ORAL AND WRITTEN STATEMENTS
B. MIRANDA v. ARIZONA
1. HISTORY OF THE MIRANDA CASE
FIGURE 4-2 The Miranda Rights
2. EXCEPTIONS TO MIRANDA
a. Background or Routine Police Questioning
b. Exigent Circumstances
c. Voluntary Statements
i. When It Is Lawful to Use Trickery
EXAMPLE
d. Site visitors Stops
3. REINITIATING QUESTIONING AND MIRANDA RIGHTS
4. WHEN MUST THE POLICE STOP QUESTIONING A SUSPECT?
III ARREST
A. DEFINING ARREST
B. WHAT HAPPENS AFTER ARREST?
IV INITIAL APPEARANCE
Preliminary look
A. THE PURPOSE OF THE INITIAL APPEARANCE
1. INFORMING THE ACCUSED
2. RIGHTS OF THE ACCUSED
3. RIGHT TO COUNSEL
FIGURE 4-3 Time Between Arrest and Sentencing
V BAIL/BOND—GETTING OUT OF JAIL
A. THE PURPOSE OF BAIL
PROFILING THE PROFESSIONAL
1. FACTORS THAT COURTS CONSIDER BEFORE SETTING BAIL
a. Seriousness of the Offense
b. Defendant’s Ties to the Group
c. Defendant’s Chance of Flight
d. General Safety of the Group
B. TYPES OF BAIL
1. MONETARY BAIL
a. Bonding Corporations
i. Bounty Hunters
2. PROPERTY BONDS
3. RECOGNIZANCE BAIL
C. REVOKING BAIL
D. POSTCONVICTION BOND
VI PRELIMINARY HEARING
A. THE PURPOSE OF THE PRELIMINARY HEARING
B. THE PROCEDURE AT THE PRELIMINARY HEARING
1. RULES OF EVIDENCE
2. THE DEFENDANT’S ROLE IN THE PRELIMINARY HEARING
3. THE PRELIMINARY HEARING DOCKET
C. NEGOTIATIONS AT THE PRELIMINARY HEARING
D. THE DECISION AT THE PRELIMINARY HEARING
PROFILING THE PROFESSIONAL
CASE EXCERPT
CASE QUESTIONS
CHAPTER SUMMARY
KEY TERMS
REVIEW QUESTIONS
WEB SURFING
EXERCISES
QUESTIONS FOR ANALYSIS
5 Starting the Case
Chapter Goals
I INTRODUCTION
II GRAND JURY
A. COMPOSITION OF THE GRAND JURY
PROFILING THE PROFESSIONAL
1. CHALLENGING THE COMPOSITION OF THE GRAND JURY
B. PURPOSE OF THE GRAND JURY
1. BURDEN OF PROOF BEFORE THE GRAND JURY
Sidebar
Sidebar
C. FEDERAL GRAND JURY VERSUS STATE GRAND JURY
1. IMMUNITY IN THE FEDERAL GRAND JURY
D. SUBPOENAS
1. QUASHING A SUBPOENA
E. GRAND JURY SECRECY
PROFILING THE PROFESSIONAL
F. PROCEDURE BEFORE THE GRAND JURY
1. PRESENTING A CASE TO THE GRAND JURY
a. Testifying Earlier than the Grand Jury
i. Pleading the “Fifth”
ii. Invoking a Privilege Earlier than the Grand Jury
EXAMPLE
G. CONTEMPT POWERS OF THE GRAND JURY
1. TRUE BILL VERSUS NO BILL
EXAMPLE
2. AFTER THE GRAND JURY’S DECISION
III INDICTMENTS
A. PURPOSE OF THE INDICTMENT
B. DRAFTING THE INDICTMENT
C. CHALLENGING INDICTMENTS
PROFILING THE PROFESSIONAL
1. QUASHING AN INDICTMENT
2. BILL OF PARTICULARS
IV ARRAIGNMENT
A. PURPOSE OF THE ARRAIGNMENT
B. FILING MOTIONS AT AN ARRAIGNMENT
C. WAIVING ARRAIGNMENT
D. FAILURE TO APPEAR FOR ARRAIGNMENT
EXAMPLE
CASE EXCERPT
CASE QUESTIONS
CHAPTER SUMMARY
KEY TERMS
REVIEW QUESTIONS
WEB SURFING
EXERCISES
QUESTIONS FOR ANALYSIS
6 Discovery and Pretrial Motions
Chapter Goals
I DISCOVERY
Sidebar
Sidebar
PROFILING THE PROFESSIONAL
A. DISCOVERY THAT IS NORMALLY PROVIDED BY THE PROSECUTION
Sidebar
1. WITNESS LIST
2. SCIENTIFIC REPORTS
3. DEFENDANT’S STATEMENTS
4. PHYSICAL EVIDENCE
FIGURE 6-1 Defendant’s Movement for Discovery
B. DEPOSITIONS IN CRIMINAL CASES
C. ORGANIZING DISCOVERY
D. DISCOVERY IN MISDEMEANOR CASES
E. VARIATION IN DISCOVERY RULES AROUND THE UNITED STATES
F. RECENT CHANGES IN DISCOVERY LAWS
G. INFORMATION THAT IS NORMALLY NOT DISCOVERABLE BY THE DEFENDANT
1. WORK PRODUCT
2. CRIMINAL RECORDS OF WITNESSES
a. Why the State Would possibly Reveal a Witness’s Prison Historical past
H. OPEN-FILE POLICY
II PROSECUTION MOTIONS
A. SIMILAR TRANSACTIONS
PROFILING THE PROFESSIONAL
B. AGGRAVATION OF SENTENCE
FIGURE 6-2 Rule 13. Joint Trial of Separate Circumstances
C. MOTION TO JOIN
III DEFENSE MOTIONS
A. Brady Movement
EXAMPLE
Sidebar
1. IN CAMERA INSPECTIONS BY JUDGES
EXAMPLE
B. MOTION TO SUPPRESS
EXAMPLE
C. OTHER MOTIONS
1. MOTION TO SEVER
2. MOTION TO CHANGE VENUE
3. SPEEDY TRIAL DEMAND
a. Dismissing a Case for Failure to Obtain a Speedy Trial
b. How Speedy Should a “Speedy Trial” Be?
c. When the Defendant Might Not Need a Speedy Trial After All
d. When Is the Proper to a Speedy Trial Triggered?
4. MOTION FOR CONTINUANCE
5. MOTION IN LIMINE
6. MOTION TO “REVEAL THE DEAL” (GIGLIO)
7. MOTION TO REVEAL THE IDENTITY OF CONFIDENTIAL INFORMANTS
CASE EXCERPT
CASE QUESTIONS
CHAPTER SUMMARY
KEY TERMS
REVIEW QUESTIONS
WEB SURFING
EXERCISES
QUESTIONS FOR ANALYSIS
7 Making ready for the Trial: The Prosecution
Chapter Goals
I EVALUATING THE CASE FOR THE PROSECUTION
A. COURT DOCKETS
1. PLEA BARGAINS
Plea cut price
FIGURE 7-1 Median Annual Price range for State Prosecutors’ Places of work, 1992-2005
a. Critics of the Plea Discount System
FIGURE 7-2 Time period of Workplace, Size of Service, and Wage of Chief Prosecutors
B. PRIORITIZING THE CASES ON THE TRIAL DOCKET
FIGURE 7-3 2005 Profile of Prosecutors
II BURDENS OF PROOF, PRESUMPTIONS, AND INFERENCES
Burden of proof
A. BURDEN OF PROOF
Burden of persuasion
Sidebar
1. THE BURDEN OF PROOF IS ALWAYS ON THE STATE
B. INFERENCES AND PRESUMPTIONS
1. PRESUMPTION OF INNOCENCE
Presumption
FIGURE 7-4 Examples of Different Presumptions in Prison Legislation
EXAMPLE
Sidebar
2. INFERENCES
Inference
FIGURE 7-5 Pattern Jury Cost on Inferences
C. ELEMENTS OF THE OFFENSE
Factor
Sidebar
FIGURE 7-6 Components of Homicide within the First Diploma
FIGURE 7-7 Proving the Components of First-Diploma Homicide
D. VENUE
Venue
PROFILING THE PROFESSIONAL
III PREPARING FOR TRIAL
A. THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN “COACHING” AND PREPARING A WITNESS
Teaching
PROFILING THE PROFESSIONAL
Sidebar
1. PREPARING A SENSITIVE OR VULNERABLE WITNESS TO TESTIFY
2. SUBPOENAING WITNESSES
3. INVESTIGATING THE STATE’S WITNESSES
4. EVALUATING A WITNESS’S CREDIBILITY
a. Utilizing Confidential Informants or Codefendants as Witnesses
B. EXHIBITS
C. EXPERT WITNESSES
EXAMPLE
1. QUALIFYING AN EXPERT WITNESS
D. NONTESTIMONIAL EVIDENCE
FIGURE 7-8 Rule 702, Federal Guidelines of Evidence
1. DEMONSTRATIVE EVIDENCE
2. ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO PRESENT EVIDENCE
CASE EXCERPT
CASE QUESTIONS
CHAPTER SUMMARY
KEY TERMS
REVIEW QUESTIONS
WEB SURFING
EXERCISES
QUESTIONS FOR ANALYSIS
8 Making ready for the Trial: The Protection
Chapter Goals
I DEFENSE ATTORNEYS
A. COMPENSATION
FIGURE 8-1 Typical Compensation Schemes for Protection Attorneys
PROFILING THE PROFESSIONAL
B. CREATING THE ATTORNEY-CLIENT RELATIONSHIP
PROFILING THE PROFESSIONAL
II INVESTIGATING THE CASE FROM THE DEFENSE VIEWPOINT
III PRETRIAL MOTIONS
PROFILING THE PROFESSIONAL
A. MOTION TO REQUEST STATE WITNESSES SPEAK WITH DEFENSE ATTORNEY
IV DEFENSES
A. PREPARING DEFENSE WITNESSES
FIGURE 8-2 Floor Guidelines for Witnesses
B. THE JURY’S ROLE IN WEIGHING DEFENSES
C. DEFENDANT’S BURDEN OF PROOF IN PRESENTING A DEFENSE
Sidebar
D. SIMPLE DEFENSE VERSUS AFFIRMATIVE DEFENSE
FIGURE 8-3 “Easy” Protection Versus Affirmative Protection
PROFILING THE PROFESSIONAL
E. INCONSISTENT DEFENSES
F. NOTICE REQUIREMENTS
G. REBUTTAL: THE PROSECUTOR’S RESPONSIBILITY
H. SPECIFIC AFFIRMATIVE DEFENSES
1. AGE
2. ALIBI
3. BATTERED WOMAN’S SYNDROME
Sidebar
FIGURE 8-4 Coercion As a Protection
4. COERCION
EXAMPLE
5. CONSENT
EXAMPLE
EXAMPLE
6. DURESS
EXAMPLE
EXAMPLE
7. ENTRAPMENT
EXAMPLE
8. INSANITY
a. How Madness Impacts Mens Rea Evaluation
b. A Temporary Historical past of the Madness Protection: M’Naghten Check
c. Fashionable Definitions of Madness After M’Naghten
FIGURE 8-5 Durham Check for Madness
d. When Was the Defendant Thought-about to Be Insane?
e. Elevating the Madness Protection
Sidebar
f. Burden of Proof for the Defendant When Elevating the Madness Protection
g. Diminished Capability
h. Irresistible Impulse
9. INTOXICATION
a. “Involuntary” Intoxication Might Be a Protection
10. MISTAKE
EXAMPLE
EXAMPLE
11. MUTUAL COMBAT
EXAMPLE
12. NECESSITY
13. SELF-DEFENSE
a. Defendant As Aggressor
b. Rebutting a Declare of Self-Protection
14. UNUSUAL DEFENSES
V CONSTITUTIONAL DEFENSES
FIGURE 8-6 The Fifth Modification
A. EQUAL PROTECTION
B. DUE PROCESS
EXAMPLE
FIGURE 8-7 The Fourteenth Modification, Part 1
C. DOUBLE JEOPARDY
D. VAGUENESS AND OVERBREADTH
E. BILLS OF ATTAINDER AND EX POST FACTO LAWS
1. EX POST FACTO
VI SHOULD THE DEFENDANT TESTIFY?
A. THE DEFENDANT’S CHARACTER IN EVIDENCE
CASE EXCERPT
CASE QUESTIONS
CHAPTER SUMMARY
KEY TERMS
REVIEW QUESTIONS
WEB SURFING
EXERCISES
QUESTIONS FOR ANALYSIS
9 Trial
Chapter Goals
I RIGHTS ASSOCIATED WITH TRIALS
A. THE RIGHT TO A PUBLIC TRIAL
PROFILING THE PROFESSIONAL
1. THE RIGHT OF THE PRESS
Sidebar
PROFILING THE PROFESSIONAL
B. THE RIGHT TO A JURY TRIAL
Sidebar
EXAMPLE
FIGURE 9-1 Felony Trial Charges for 13 States*
1. THE NUMBER OF JURORS USED IN A TRIAL
FIGURE 9-2 P.c Lower in Felony Jury Trial Charges
Sidebar
a. Investigating the Jury Pool
2. THE DEFENDANT’S PRESENCE AT THE TRIAL
C. THE RIGHT TO CONFRONT WITNESSES
EXAMPLE
D. THE RIGHT TO AN ATTORNEY
1. GIDEON v. WAINWRIGHT
2. PRO SE REPRESENTATION
E. THE RIGHT TO A SPEEDY TRIAL
F. THE RIGHT TO PRESENT WITNESS TESTIMONY AND EVIDENCE
EXAMPLE
EXAMPLE
PROFILING THE PROFESSIONAL
II THE COURTROOM LAYOUT
PROFILING THE PROFESSIONAL
A. THE JURY BOX
1. THE JURY ROOM
B. THE WITNESS STAND
C. THE JUDGE’S BENCH
FIGURE 9-3 Whole Prison and Bench Trials in 23 States
D. CLERK’S AND COURT REPORTER’S TABLES
D. ATTORNEYS’ TABLES
E. THE BAR
III THE TRIAL
A. VOIR DIRE (JURY SELECTION)
1. STRIKING THE JURY
2. SEQUESTERING THE JURY
B. OPENING STATEMENTS
C. PRESENTING THE CASE TO THE JURY
1. DIRECT EXAMINATION
FIGURE 9-4 Main Versus Nonleading Questions
2. CROSS-EXAMINATION
FIGURE 9-5 Examples of Sure or No Questions Versus Open-Ended Questions
3. REDIRECT EXAMINATION
4. CONCLUDING THE GOVERNMENT’S PRESENTATION
5. MOTION FOR DIRECTED VERDICT
E. PRESENTING THE DEFENDANT’S CASE TO THE JURY
F. REBUTTAL
G. CLOSING ARGUMENTS
H. JURY INSTRUCTIONS
I. THE VERDICT
CASE EXCERPT
CASE QUESTIONS
CHAPTER SUMMARY
KEY TERMS
REVIEW QUESTIONS
WEB SURFING
EXERCISES
QUESTIONS FOR ANALYSIS
10 Sentencing
Chapter Goals
I  INTRODUCTION TO SENTENCING
A. HOW A DEFENDANT ENTERS A GUILTY PLEA
1. ESTABLISHING THE VOLUNTARINESS OF THE PLEA
FIGURE 10-1 Responsible Plea Interrogatories for Defendant
EXAMPLE
EXAMPLE
B. TYPES OF PLEAS
1. NOLO CONTENDERE
2. ALFORD PLEA
3. CONDITIONAL PLEA
4. FIRST OFFENDER TREATMENT
II PLEA BARGAINING
A. FEDERAL SENTENCING NEGOTIATIONS
1. FEDERAL SENTENCING GUIDELINES
B. STATE PLEA NEGOTIATIONS
1. STATE SENTENCING GUIDELINES
2. CONSECUTIVE VERSUS CONCURRENT PRISON SENTENCES
C. THE CONTROVERSY SURROUNDING PLEA BARGAINS
FIGURE 10-2 Modification VIII, U.S. Constitutional
D. CONSTITUTIONAL LIMITATIONS ON CRIMINAL SENTENCES
1. TORTURE
FIGURE 10-3 Eighth Modification Prohibitions on Sentencing
2. CORPORAL PUNISHMENT
3. EXCESSIVE FINES
4. DISPROPORTIONATE SENTENCING
a. “Three Strikes and You’re Out”
EXAMPLE
FIGURE 10-4 Punishment of Repeat Offenders; Punishment and Eligibility for Parole of Individuals Convicted of Fourth Felony Offense Georgia
PROFILING THE PROFESSIONAL
E. INNOVATIVE SENTENCES
1. HOUSE ARREST AND ELECTRONIC MONITORING
2. SUSPENDED SENTENCES WITH CONDITIONS
3. PRIVATE PRISONS
FIGURE 10-5 Variety of Felony Convictions for Individuals Sentenced in State Courts
Sidebar
4. REGISTERED SEX OFFENDER PROGRAMS
5. INTENSIVE PROBATION
III  SENTENCING AFTER TRIAL
A. DEFENDANT IS FOUND GUILTY
B. ENTRY OF THE VERDICT AS THE JUDGMENT OF THE COURT
C. JUDGE’S DISCRETION IN SENTENCING
1. PROBATION/PAROLE
FIGURE 10-6 Defendants Convicted and Sentenced to a Federal Jail Time period
a. Probation Revocation Hearings
b. Pardons and Commutations
c. Early Launch
2. LIFE IN PRISON
3. LIFE SENTENCE WITHOUT THE POSSIBILITY OF PAROLE
4. DETERMINATE YEARS SENTENCING
D. SENTENCING HEARINGS
1. DEFENDANT’S PRESENTATION OF EVIDENCE TO MITIGATE THE SENTENCE
2. STATE’S PRESENTATION OF EVIDENCE IN AGGRAVATION OF THE DEFENDANT’S SENTENCE
3. VICTIM IMPACT STATEMENTS
PROFILING THE PROFESSIONAL
IV THE DEATH PENALTY
A. PROCEDURES IN DEATH PENALTY CASES
B. SENTENCING IN DEATH PENALTY CASES
C. MORATORIUMS ON DEATH PENALTY SENTENCES
D. NEW BILLS BARRING EXECUTION OF THE MENTALLY HANDICAPPED
V CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES
A. BOOT CAMPS
PROFILING THE PROFESSIONAL
B. PRISONER RIGHTS
Sidebar
CASE EXCERPT
CASE QUESTIONS
CHAPTER SUMMARY
KEY TERMS
REVIEW QUESTIONS
WEB SURFING
EXERCISES
QUESTIONS FOR ANALYSIS
11 Appeals
Chapter Goals
I  INTRODUCTION TO THE APPELLATE PROCESS
A. MOTION FOR A NEW TRIAL
EXAMPLE
B. NOTICE OF APPEAL
II JURISDICTION AND PROCEDURAL STEPS IN APPELLATE COURTS
FIGURE 11-1 P.c of Prison Appeals Filed in U.S. District Court
A. THE RECORD
PROFILING THE PROFESSIONAL
B. DOCKETING
FIGURE 11-2 Rule 10, Federal Guidelines of Appellate Procedure
III  PERMISSIBLE ACTIONS BY APPELLATE COURTS
FIGURE 11-3 Forms of Sentences Imposed on Felons
EXAMPLE
IV PRESENTING AN APPEAL
A. APPELLATE BRIEFS
PROFILING THE PROFESSIONAL
1. CONTENTS OF AN APPELLATE BRIEF
a. Title Web page
b. Assertion of Information
c. Enumerations of Error
d. Argument
e. Conclusion
EXAMPLE
B. ORAL ARGUMENT
PROFILING THE PROFESSIONAL
V  TAKING THE APPEAL TO A HIGHER COURT
A. CERTIORARI
1. STANDARDS USED TO DETERMINE GRANTING CERT
a. Granting Cert
b. Denial of Cert
B. THE LENGTHY TIME FOR CASES TO PROCEED THROUGH THE APPELLATE PROCESS
C. HABEAS CORPUS
CASE EXCERPT
CASE QUESTIONS
CHAPTER SUMMARY
KEY TERMS
REVIEW QUESTIONS
WEB SURFING
EXERCISES
QUESTIONS FOR ANALYSIS
12 Juvenile Court
Chapter Goals
I  INTRODUCTION TO JUVENILE COURT
PROFILING THE PROFESSIONAL
A. A SHORT HISTORY OF JUVENILE COURT
B. IMPORTANT U.S. SUPREME COURT CASES IN THE AREA OF JUVENILE LAW
C. THE ROLE OF THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT IN JUVENILE JUSTICE
FIGURE 12.1 Mannequin Juvenile Court Act
D. THE MODEL JUVENILE COURT ACT
II  JURISDICTIONAL ISSUES AND JUVENILE COURT
A. DEPENDENT OR DEPRIVED
B. NEGLECTED
C. VICTIM OF CRUELTY OR ABUSE
EXAMPLE
D. DELINQUENT
FIGURE 12.2 Juvenile Circumstances Prosecuted in Prison Courts
FIGURE 12.3 Nonfelony Circumstances Prosecuted by State Prosecutors’ Places of work
E. STATUS OFFENSES
F. POWERS OF JUVENILE COURT JUDGES
G. JURISDICTION AND AGE OF THE CHILD
EXAMPLE
III  ORGANIZATION OF THE JUVENILE COURT SYSTEM
A. INDEPENDENT JUVENILE COURTS
B. FAMILY COURTS
1. TERMINATING PARENTAL RIGHTS
C. INTEGRATED COURT SYSTEMS
1. CAPTIONING OF CASES IN JUVENILE COURT
D. JUVENILE COURT RECORDS
PROFILING THE PROFESSIONAL
E. JUVENILES TRIED AS ADULTS
PROFILING THE PROFESSIONAL
IV JUVENILE COURT PROCEDURE
A. SUMMONS (ARREST)
B. INTAKE
C. DETENTION
D. JUDICIAL ADJUDICATION
CASE EXCERPT
CASE QUESTIONS
CHAPTER SUMMARY
KEY TERMS
REVIEW QUESTIONS
WEB SURFING
EXERCISES
QUESTIONS FOR ANALYSIS
Again Matter
Appendix: U.S. Structure
ARTICLE I
SECTION 1
SECTION 2
SECTION 3
SECTION 4
SECTION 5
SECTION 6
SECTION 7
SECTION 8
SECTION 9
SECTION 10
ARTICLE II
SECTION 1
SECTION 2
SECTION 3
SECTION 4
ARTICLE III
SECTION 1
SECTION 2
SECTION 3
ARTICLE IV
SECTION 1
SECTION 2
SECTION 3
SECTION 4
ARTICLE V
ARTICLE VI
ARTICLE VII
AMENDMENT I
AMENDMENT II
AMENDMENTIII
AMENDMENT IV
AMENDMENT V
AMENDMENT VI
AMENDMENT VII
AMENDMENT VIII
AMENDMENT IX
AMENDMENT X
AMENDMENT XI
AMENDMENT XII
AMENDMENT XIII
AMENDMENT XIV
AMENDMENT XV
AMENDMENT XVI
AMENDMENT XVII
AMENDMENT XVIII
AMENDMENT XIX
AMENDMENT XX
AMENDMENT XXI
AMENDMENT XXII
AMENDMENT XXIII
AMENDMENT XXIV
AMENDMENT XXV
AMENDMENT XXVI
AMENDMENT XXVII
Glossary
Index

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Court Procedure and Evidence Issues Neal R. Bevans
Court Procedure and Evidence Issues Neal R. Bevans

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